Eadweard Muybridge's The Horse in Motion is widely cited as the first movie ever made - initially a series of photographs; it didn't turn into a motion picture until 1880, when Muybridge began projecting it onto a zoopraxiscope disc.

A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. The definitive version, with easily replaceable picture strips, was introduced as a toy by Milton Bradley in 1866 and became very successful.

The Mutoscope works on the same principle as the flip book. The individual image frames are conventional black-and-white, silver-based photographic prints on tough, flexible opaque cards.

Anaglyph 3D is the stereoscopic 3D effect achieved by means of encoding each eye's image using filters of different (usually chromatically opposite) colors, typically red and cyan. Anaglyph 3D images contain two differently filtered colored images, one for each eye.

Leveraging generative Artificial Intelligence image models and continuous motors connected to an Arduino board using C++ programming, a series of animated cells are created using traditional Anaglyph techniques to present a series of timed sequences in a kinetic sculpture.


  Object Design & Production

Leveraging 3D printing techniques of 2D components using Glowforge systems, the physical object was digitally designed and printed.

Components are designed using the Vector program Adobe Illustrator as 2D elements that are printed and then assembled using glue and hardware.

Using wooden dowels to create the center spline and 24 pegs for each frame, the box is fabricated. Each frame of the animation is split vertically with previous frame and printed on 3-1/3" x 4" Avery labels and attached to the wooden pegs.

Once assembled, a FeeTech FS5103R, Continuous Rotation Servo motor is attached. This servo rotates fully forward or backward instead of moving to a position. It is controlled with an Arduino, connecting the control wire to pin 9, 10, and 11 (respectfully). Position "90" (1.5ms pulse) is stop, "180" (2ms pulse) is full speed forward, "0" (1ms pulse) is full speed backward.


By using the detach command, allows for the system to release the motor and come to a complete stop. conceptually using a write speed of (90) should force the Motor to stop, but due to a calibrations, it would cause some backward rotation. delay in milliseconds are added to pace each box and the entire series of movements.


  Digital Imaging & Animation

Traditionally all imaging would be generated by hand or through the use of photographic medium, however for this project generative artificial intelligence imaging modules were investigated both as methods of source imaging and manipulation.

Midjourney generates images from natural language descriptions, called "prompts", similar to OpenAI's DALL-E and Stability AI's Stable Diffusion. Midjourney is currently only accessible through a Discord bot on their official Discord server. To generate images, users use the /imagine command and type in a prompt; the bot then returns a set of four images.

For the base background environment, 2D images were converted to anaglyph 3D using grayscale displacement maps generated in Adobe Photoshop.

Anaglyph 3D images contain two differently filtered colored images, one for each eye. When viewed through the "color-coded" "anaglyph glasses", each of the two images reaches the eye it's intended for, revealing an integrated stereoscopic image.


This principal character for each cell is then masked and t-posed using Adobe Photoshop.

It is then layered in Adobe AfterEffects with other elements and animated using the puppet pin tool. Using standard keyframing techniques or conditions, that desribe the transformation of this object, and that all other intermediate positions can be figured out from these.

This is composited with character and other cell based animation in Adobe AfterEffects and rendered as a Tiff Sequence for a set of individual images. These images are then split and organized in Adobe Illustrator for printing. Due to the rotation and design of the mechanical flip box each image "frame" is half of a cell ahead of it in the sequence.